Different Types of Manufacturing Processes

In this article, we learn what are the manufacturing processes, and the different types of manufacturing processes.

Manufacturing Processes Definition

The manufacturing process of a workpiece involves transforming a raw material from its original state to a finished state by changing its shape or the properties of the material in a series of steps.

The design engineer should have complete knowledge of manufacturing processes.

Actually, the manufacturing process is the part of the production process directly concerned with the changes in dimensions, shapes, and properties of raw material. It is accomplished in a definite sequence.

Different Types of Manufacturing Processes

Manufacturing processes can be divided into the following groups:

                     1. Primary shaping processes

                     2. Deforming processes

                     3. Machining processes

                     4. Joining processes

                     5. Surface finishing processes

                     6. Material properties modification processes

1. Primary shaping processes

  • Primary shaping is the manufacturing of a solid body from a molten state or gaseous state or amorphous material (gases, liquids, powders, fibers, chips, etc),
  • A primary shaping process contains a molten metal like cast iron which is poured into the hollow space (mold of desired shape). After solidification, it attains the shape of a hollow space.
  • Some of the important primary shaping processes are as follows:

                           1. Casting processes

                           2. Powder metallurgy processes

                           3. Processing of plastics

2. Deforming processes

  • In deforming processes, metal is in cold or hot conditions, and is deformed plastically into the desired shapes without changing its mass or metal composition.
  • In deforming processes, no metal is removed; only it is deformed and displaced.
  • This process makes use of suitable stresses like tension, compression, etc. to cause plastic deformation.
  • Some of the important deforming processes are as follows

                           1. Forging

                           2. Rolling

                           3. Sheet metal working

                           4. Extrusion

3. Machining processes

  • In machining processes, the material is removed by providing suitable relative motions between the workpiece and tool, so as to generate the required size and shape on the component.
  • As the material is removed, these processes are also called removing processes.
  • Some of the important machining processes are as follows:

                           1. Turning

                           2. Drilling

                           3. Milling

                           4. Shaping

                           5. Reaming

4. Joining processes

  • In these processes, two or more pieces of metal parts are joined together to make a final component.
  • The joining process can be carried out by fusing, pressing, rubbing, etc.
  • Most of the processes require heat and pressure for the joining of metal pieces.
  • Some of the important joining processes are as follows

                           1. Welding

                           2. Soldering

                           3. Brazing

                           4. Screwing

                           5. Riveting

                           6. Adhesive bonding

5. Surface finishing processes

  • These processes are used only to provide a good surface finish or decorative or protective coating on the metal surface of a workpiece.
  • During the process, the dimensions of the part are not changed, and only a negligible amount of metal is removed from the workpiece.
  • Some of the important surface finishing processes are as follows:

                          1. Honing

                          2. Lapping

                          3. Buffing

                          4. Plating

                          5. Coating

                          6. Grinding

6. Material properties modification processes

  • These processes are used to provide certain specific properties to the metal parts so as to make them suitable for particular operations.
  • In these processes, the shape of the workpiece remains the same.
  • Some of the important material properties modification processes are as follows:

                           1. Hot working

                           2. Cold working

                           3. Heat treatment

                           4. Shot peening

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